Archiv der Kategorie 'KURDISTAN'

„Die Lage ist katastrophal“

In Afrin kämpfen türkische Soldaten gegen die kurdische YPG-Miliz – und das mit deutschen Waffen. Heuteplus hat mit einem Arzt gesprochen, der gerade dort war.

ZDF

Rüstungsgüter für die Türkei – Neue deutsche Waffen – trotz Afrin

Obwohl die Bundesregierung die türkische Offensive in Afrin als „inakzeptabel“ bezeichnet, genehmigte sie seit deren Beginn Rüstungsexporte in Millionenhöhe an die Türkei.

Bei „allen berechtigten Sicherheitsinteressen der Türkei ist es inakzeptabel, was in Afrin passiert“, sagte Bundeskanzlerin Angela Merkel in ihrer Regierungserklärung vergangene Woche. Doch ungeachtet dieser Einschätzung genehmigt die Bundesregierung weiter Rüstungsexporte an die direkte Konfliktpartei Türkei.

Dabei handelt sich unter anderem um Munition, Feuerleitanlagen – also Technologien zur Verbesserung der Zielgenauigkeit von Waffensystemen –, militärische Luftfahrzeuge, Software und Materialien zur Herstellung von bestimmten Rüstungsgütern. Das geht aus der Antwort der Bundesregierung auf eine kleine Anfrage der Linkspartei hervor, die dem ARD-Hauptstadtstudio exklusiv vorliegt.

Insgesamt genehmigte die Bundesregierung seit dem 20. Januar 2018, dem Beginn der türkischen Militäroffensive „Olivenzweig“ gegen kurdische Milizen in der nordwestsyrischen Region Afrin, neue Rüstungslieferungen in Höhe von knapp 4,4 Millionen Euro. Im Zeitraum direkt davor – vom 18. Dezember 2017 bis zum 24. Januar 2018 – betrug der Genehmigungswert fast zehn Millionen Euro.

Scharfe Kritik an den Genehmigungen

Die stellvertretende Fraktionsvorsitzende der Linkspartei findet das zynisch. Aus Sicht von Sevim Dagdelen genehmigt die Bundesregierung damit die Ausfuhr von Kriegswaffen in ein Spannungsgebiet: „Hier steht eindeutig die Glaubwürdigkeit der Bundeskanzlerin in Frage. Es kann nicht sein, dass man einerseits den Einmarsch als inakzeptabel verurteilt, diese Kritik aber keinerlei Konsequenzen hat – ganz im Gegenteil auch noch eindeutiger Nachschub an Waffen genehmigt wird.“

Man könne nicht ausschließen, dass Teile dieser Lieferung auch bei der türkischen Offensive gegen die kurdischen Milizen eingesetzt würden, räumt auch der Außenpolitiker und stellvertretende Fraktionsvize der SPD, Rolf Mützenich, ein. Er hält die neuen Genehmigungen daher ausdrücklich für falsch: „NATO-Staaten wie die Türkei haben zwar offenere Liefermöglichkeiten, diese können aber auch verwehrt werden. Und in diesem Fall wäre das angebracht.“

Keine völkerrechtliche Bewertung

Zu einer eigenen völkerrechtlichen Bewertung des türkischen Einmarsches in Afrin sieht sich die Bundesregierung weiterhin nicht in der Lage. Auch in der Antwort des Auswärtigen Amtes auf die kleine Anfrage der Linkspartei heißt es: „Zur Selbstverteidigungslage, in der die Türkei sich nach ihrer Auffassung befand, liegen der Bundesregierung keine vollständigen Tatsacheninformationen vor, die eine eigene völkerrechtliche Bewertung erlauben würden.“

Für Dagdelen liegen die Gründe für das Zögern der Bundesregierung auf der Hand: „Eine Verurteilung als völkerrechtswidrig hätte zur Folge, dass Waffenlieferungen an die Türkei als Mittäterschaft und Beihilfe zum Angriffskrieg bewertet werden müssten. Das aber ist untersagt. Die Bundesregierung würde sich in dem Fall also sozusagen selbst anklagen, deshalb reagiert sie so widersprüchlich.“

Verstoß gegen das Völkerrecht?

Der wissenschaftliche Dienst des Bundestages jedenfalls hat die Verhältnismäßigkeit der Militäroperation bereits vor Wochen klar bezweifelt. Die Fraktionen von Union und SPD nennen den Einsatz offen völkerrechtswidrig.

Der SPD-Außenpolitiker Mützenich fordert daher, dass die Bundesregierung eine klare Sprache sprechen solle: „Wir bewerben uns für einen nichtständigen Sitz im UN-Sicherheitsrat, wo das Völkerrecht eine ganz wichtige Rolle spielt.“ Mützenich schlägt außerdem vor, Deutschland solle sich als Vermittler anbieten. Schließlich hat der türkische Präsident Recep Tayyip Erdogan gerade erst angekündigt, die Militäroffensive noch einmal auszuweiten – sowohl in Nordsyrien als auch im Irak.

Tagesschau.de

Your silence is killing Kurds

The Jihadists of ISIS and Al-Qaeda now control the city of Afrin, with Turkey`s help. Turkey makes ethnic cleansing against Kurds.

Ein kurzer Bericht vom Weltspiegel über die toten Zivilisten in Afrin

Türken töten keine Zivilisten, behauptet Präsident Erdogan. Gilt das auch das syrische Afrin ? Beobachter zählen dort inzwischen zahlreiche „zivile“ Tote und sprechen sogar von Kriegsverbrechen.

Weltspiegel

Breaking News: Saleh Muslim released

Former PYD Co-chair Saleh Muslim who was detained in Prague Saturday night has been released after appearing at court today.

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TEV-DEM foreign relations official and former PYD leader Saleh Moslem was detained in Prague, capital city of Czech Republic, at Turkey’s request Saturday night. In a statement on Sunday, Police of Czech Republic announced that he had been arrested in Prague at the request of the Turkish Interpol.

Moslem’s lawyer Tomas Pelikan stated that he had been detained in connection with a case Turkey opened against him in 2017.

Kurds and their allies held demonstrations around the world demanding the release of the Kurdish politician.

Several European politicians also condemned the arrest of Muslim and demanded his immediate release.

ANF

Women Are Free, and Armed, in Kurdish-Controlled Northern Syria

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Women marching this month on the outskirts of Kobani, Syria, during a protest against a Turkish military offensive in the country. Many are waving the Rojava flag of Kurdish-controlled northern Syria. Credit Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

MANBIJ, Syria — Radwan, a 30-year-old Arab man, came with four male witnesses and a grievance with an ex-wife to a place called the Women’s House here in Manbij, in northern Syria.

He had recently divorced his second wife, Amira, 17, and he wanted back the gold he had given her as a bride price, some three or four ounces at most — worth more than few goats but less than a car.

The five men sat down with Amira and her mother, Isra, in a circle of plastic chairs around a stove to discuss the matter, with the mediation of several officials from the Women’s House.

The conversation grew heated as Amira and her mother, who asked that the families’ last names be withheld to avoid a tribal backlash against them, refused to return the gold. When the Women’s House officials said that not only was Amira right to keep it, but that she was also entitled to a houseful of furniture in compensation for the divorce, Radwan began shouting.

Chairs were knocked over and voices raised, but the women officials escorted the men out of the building politely but firmly, warning that the police would be summoned if they didn’t go quietly.

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Ibrahim al-Wardy, talks to his wife, Zahida al-Jassim, in the office of Widat Hayat, center, at the Women’s House in Manbij, Syria, where they came to settle a property dispute between Mr. Jassim’s wife and another man. Credit Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

Shilan Shermooz, the administrator of the Women’s House, said the matter was not yet over. Once Radwan made the reparations, she said, they would send his case to court and see him prosecuted for beating and abusing Amira for the two weeks they were married. Radwan was also guilty of fraud, she said, because Amira agreed to the wedding not knowing he already had a wife and children.
Continue reading the main story

“The patriarchy really is over,” Ms. Shermooz said, sharing a laugh with two colleagues.

In the Kurdish-controlled areas of northern Syria, a push for gender equality has given women like Ms. Shermooz significant power to enforce women’s rights. The authority wielded by women here — in the police, the courts and the militias — is patterned on the gender egalitarian philosophy of the Kurds’ ideological leader, Abdullah Ocalan.

The founder of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party, or P.K.K., Mr. Ocalan is serving a life sentence in Turkey on terrorism charges, and his organization is a designated terrorist organization according to the United States and the European Union. But his philosophy is widely popular among Kurds, particularly in northern Syria and eastern Turkey.

Six years of control of most of northern Syria have given the Kurds a chance to put into practice their gender reforms to an unprecedented degree, unhampered by interference from the Turkish government, which has cracked down on many of the women’s institutions in Kurdish-majority areas of Turkey.

By law, every government institution in Kurdish-controlled Syria has a co-president or co-chairman of each sex, and most government boards and committees have to be equally mixed by gender as well — except for women’s institutions, which are led by only women.

The Kurdish militias have separate Women’s Protection Units, or Y.P.J., which have been important partners with men’s units on the battlefield. When the Syrian Democratic Forces, an American-backed coalition, captured Raqqa from the Islamic State in October, the overall commander was a Y.P.J. woman, Rojda Felat.

“There are always men thinking that women are slaves, but when women are an armed force, men are scared of them,” said Arzu Demir, the Turkish author of a book on the Y.P.J. militias.

The Kurdish effort to enact gender equality has really been put to the test in places like Manbij, which is overwhelmingly Arab, and also conservative and tribal. The Kurdish-dominated Syrian Democratic Forces took control here about 18 months ago, in a campaign supported by American Special Operations forces and air power. While the Manbij Military Council, which is now in charge, is a majority Arab force, the new government is organized on Mr. Ocalan’s revolutionary principles.

Women were immediately given the right to divorce, previously a right reserved to men; to inherit property on an equal basis with men; and to keep their children and their homes in a marital breakup. Gone were long-observed Shariah law provisions that gave a woman’s testimony in court only half the weight of a man’s.

Those changes were not without pushback. The Kurdish majority area of Kobani in Syria, for instance, outlawed the practice of men taking more than one wife. But when officials tried to apply that restriction to Manbij, anger from tribal leaders led to the granting of an exception here.

Still, the Women’s House in Manbij right away began aggressively counseling wives whose husbands married a second time that they could divorce, and walk away with the children, the house and half of any property. The result has been some 200 divorces in the past year, mostly in cases of polygamy and underage marriage, said Widat Hayat an Arab woman and a sociologist who heads the research department at the Women’s House. It is an unprecedented number.

Many local men have found it difficult to reconcile the prosperity and stability the new government has brought with their own traditions.

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A group of men in Amuda, in northern Syria. Many local men have found it difficult to reconcile the prosperity and stability the new government has brought with their own traditions. Credit Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

Abdul Aziz al-Hassin, 45, an Arab shopkeeper who has 14 children, agrees that “a woman has the same rights as a man, she’s not a slave or a servant.” But he still intends to take a second wife, he said, because his current one, also 45, can no longer bear children. How will she react to that? “I won’t tell her,” he said. “It’s none of her business.”

Attitudes like that die hard.

“When we opened the Women’s House, even we didn’t believe this was going to work here,” said Jihan Mustafa, one of the counselors who coach women on their rights, and help them through divorce, spousal abuse prosecutions and legal actions to force their husbands to better provide for their children. “Now as you see, it is always busy here.”

At the Women’s House in Manbij, halls, waiting rooms and consultation rooms were crowded with men and women — with many of the men visibly angry.

Ms. Mustafa is a Kurd, as were the first women’s activists here, but now other members of the Women’s House are Arabs, and most of their clients are as well. Manbij is heavily Arab, with minorities of Kurds and others. “There is real acceptance for it, just 18 months after the liberation of Manbij,” she said.

Acceptance is hardly universal, however, and many of those who are critical are also afraid to speak out publicly.

“To understand the current situation, think of ISIS, but at the other end of the spectrum,” said Abdul, 37, a teacher who spoke on condition of anonymity for fear of repercussions from Kurdish officials. “They never stop trying to impose codes and teachings that contradict our cultural norms and conservative views,” he said. “And they insist on having a female presence in everything, which has made them hire unqualified females in posts they don’t know how to handle.”

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Children play in a heavily bombed area in Kobani, in northern Syria. After Kurds took control of the area, women were immediately given the right to divorce, previously a right reserved to men; to inherit property on an equal basis with men; and to keep their children and their homes in a marital breakup. Credit Mauricio Lima for The New York Times

Kurdish leaders are aware of the discontent, but say the changes they are bringing are long overdue and are gaining acceptance, especially among younger Arab women.

“Most men don’t accept it, but we speak to women and try to make society understand why it is not good, for instance, to have more than one wife,” said Isam Abdul Qader, an Arab member of the Manbij Women’s Council, another organization that advocates women’s equality. It also sends teams of women door to door in neighborhoods and villages, where they ask to come in and explain to the women their new rights.

“Many men don’t let us in at first,” said Hana Sharif, a Kurdish council member. “We just go back two or three times. Little by little, it is working.”

Maja al-Ali, 25, is an Arab woman member of the council who said the new local government has changed her life. “Before I just stayed in the house and I couldn’t even wake up in the morning,” she said. “Now I have character and a role in society. Now I get up in the morning, I have meetings and do things, and I love life now.”

At the request of local women, the council has started a driving school for them. Recently, some women in Manbij have asked the women’s council to set up firearms courses to teach civilian women how to defend themselves.

“It is about time,” Ms. Sharif said, “that we have all of our rights.”

The New York Times

Türkei missachtet UN-Resolution / Kampf gegen Kurden in Syrien

Die Türkei hat die UN-Resolution für eine Feuerpause in Syrien begrüßt. Fühlt sich aber offenbar nicht daran gebunden.

Trotz der UN-Resolution für eine Waffenruhe in Syrien gehen auch die Kämpfe zwischen dem türkischen Militär und der Kurdenmiliz YPG in der nordwestsyrischen Region Afrin weiter. Das türkische Militär und verbündete Rebellen seien unterstützt von Luftangriffen weiter vorgerückt, teilte die Syrische Beobachtungsstelle für Menschenrechte mit.

Ankara hatte die UN-Resolution zum Waffenstillstand zwar begrüßt, aber zugleich angekündigt, weiter gegen „terroristische Organisationen“ zu kämpfen.

ZDF

Sehid Michael Israel Brigade

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Antifascist Forces in Afrin (AFFA) is a military group of leftist revolutionaries defending Afrin and its people from the invasion of the Turkish state and its Salafist proxies.

Alongside non-affiliated individuals and members of Turkish and Kurdish communist revolutionary parties, Şehîd Michael Israel Brigade is the main component of AFFA.

Our fight against ISIS over the last 18+ months has steeled our comradeship. Having known, fought and lived with Michael Israel we decided it was fitting to name our unit after him given the context of his martyrdom: Michael was killed by Turkish airstrikes as he was fighting ISIS.

Antifascist Forces in Afrin was founded as an emergency response to Turkish president Erdogan’s heinous attempt to crush the Rojava revolution and its peoples in their most peaceful region.

Many of us are former commanders and fighters from the International Freedom Battalion and various YPG units.

After the hard-won battle to liberate Rakka from ISIS many of us had moved onto work in the civil and social side of the revolution while others went on to train newly arrived international fighters.

In that relatively peaceful period between the Rakka operation and the Battle for Afrin our faith in the Rojava revolution was compounded by the remarkable progress we witnessed in the lives of the people here.

We have now come together once again in this most crucial and decisive battle against fascist attack.

We fight mainly as our own unit in the Şehîd Michael Israel Brigade as well as in mixed assault teams with our comrades from YPG, YPJ, TIKKO, BÖG, MLSPB, TKEP-L and MKP.

We are now all fully engaged in the defence of Afrin as active units. Having already taken some wounded amongst our ranks, and due to the general logistical pressures of war, our ability to conduct and release public communications may be sporadic in the future as the battle hardens. So please be patient and share our communiques widely. While you wait on our messages please share all other pro-Afrin media.

Until now we have been disappointed at the lack of international support for Afrin. But now with protests and solidarity actions in full swing across the world it is your duty to partake in the fight for Afrin just as many leftists before us did so for Vietnam. Whilst the enemy has an armed presence in Afrin its soft underbelly is exposed to you: its international reputation, its economic ties and its political institutions. Civil and popular actions worldwide against the Turkish state can in many ways be more effective than any number of bullets we fire. This is a political fight as much it is a military battle.

Defend Afrin.
Death to Fascism.
No Pasaran.

Şehîd Michael Israel Brigade

Antifascist Forces in Afrin – AFFA.
15th February 2018

Turkish Army Hit Village in Syria’s Afrin With Suspected Gas: Kurdish YPG, Observatory

Syrian Kurdish forces and a monitoring group said the Turkish military carried out a suspected gas attack that wounded six people in Syria’s Afrin region on Friday.

There was no immediate comment from the Turkish military, which has previously denied accusations of hitting civilians in its Afrin operation.

Birusk Hasaka, a spokesman for the Kurdish YPG militia in Afrin, told Reuters that Turkish bombardment hit a village in the northwest of the region, near the Turkish border. He said it caused six people to suffer breathing problems and other symptoms indicative of a gas attack.

Turkey launched an air and ground offensive last month on the Afrin region, opening a new front in the multi-sided Syrian war to target Kurdish fighters in northern Syria.

The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights told Reuters that Turkish forces and their Syrian insurgent allies hit the village on Friday with shells. The Britain-based war monitoring group said medical sources in Afrin reported that six people in the attack suffered breathing difficulties and dilated pupils, indicating a suspected gas attack.

Syrian state news agency SANA, citing a doctor in a Afrin hospital, said Turkish shelling of the village caused choking in six people.

On Feb. 6, the United Nations called for an immediate humanitarian ceasefire in Syria.

Since the onset of the conflict in 2011, the YPG and its allies have set up three autonomous cantons in the north, including Afrin. Their sphere of influence expanded as they seized territory from Islamic State with U.S. help, though Washington opposes their autonomy plans as does the Syrian government.

U.S. support for Kurdish-led forces in Syria has infuriated Ankara, which views them as a security threat along its frontier. Turkey sees the YPG as terrorists and an extension of the outlawed Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) that has waged a three-decade insurgency on Turkish soil.

(Reporting by Ellen Francis in Beirut and Rodi Said in northern Syria; Additional reporting by Daren Butler in Istanbul; Editing by Toni Reinhold)

The New York Times

VIDEO

Rheinmetall treibt Türkei-Deal voran

Rheinmetall bringt trotz ausstehender Genehmigung die Aufrüstung türkischer „Leopard 2″-Panzer auf den Weg: Laut BR und „Stern“ soll es bereits einen Deal mit der türkischen Firma BMC geben.

Als die türkische Armee Ende Januar „Leopard 2″-Panzer gegen die Kurdenmiliz YPG einsetzte, war die Empörung groß: Panzer aus deutscher Produktion in einem völkerrechtswidrigen Krieg. Panzer, für die Außenminister Sigmar Gabriel bei einem Treffen mit seinem türkischen Amtskollegen in Aussicht gestellt hatte, die Bundesregierung werde eine Nachrüstung genehmigen.

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Ein Panzer „Leopard 2″ nahe der syrischen Grenze. Die Türkei hat in den 1990er-Jahren mehr als 300 dieser Panzer aus Beständen der Bundeswehr erhalten.

Diese sieht vor, dass Rheinmetall den „Leopard 2″ mit einer besseren Panzerung gegen Raketenbeschuss und Sprengfallen ausstattet. Doch nach Beginn der türkischen Offensive ruderte der Außenminister zurück. „Mit der Beratung von kritischen Vorhaben“ werde man bis zur Bildung einer neuen Regierung warten.

Vereinbarung drei Tage nach Außenminister-Treffen

Jetzt aber stellt sich heraus: Bereits am 9. Januar, drei Tage nach dem Treffen der beiden Außenminister, reiste offenbar eine Delegation des türkischen Unternehmens BMC nach Düsseldorf und unterzeichnete bei Rheinmetall eine Vereinbarung über die Nachrüstung. Das haben das ARD-Politikmagazin report München und der „Stern“ aus Firmenquellen erfahren. Offenbar ging man bei Rheinmetall bereits davon aus, dass die Genehmigung kommt.

Der Grünen-Wirtschaftsexperte Dieter Janecek bezeichnet den Vorgang als „skandalös“. Einerseits erzähle die Bundesregierung, man trete für die Menschenrechte und die Befreiung des inhaftierten „Welt“-Korrespondenten Deniz Yücel ein, andererseits sei man „mittendrin in diesem Geschäft“, kritisierte der Bundestagsabgeordnete. Janecek befürchtet, dass die Genehmigung erteilt wird, sobald der öffentliche Druck nachlasse und sich „ein Zeitfenster“ auftue.

Rheinmetall plant Joint-Venture mit der Türkei

Rheinmetalls Türkei-Pläne gehen aber noch viel weiter: Präsident Erdogan möchte bald vor Ort Panzer bauen lassen. Rheinmetall will mit dabei sein und hat in der Türkei ein Tochterunternehmen gegründet. Es heißt RBSS und hat seinen Sitz in Ankara – ein Joint-Venture unter anderem mit dem türkischen Konzern BMC, das einem Erdogan-Vertrauten gehört. Interne Rheinmetall-Mails, die report München und dem „Stern“ vorliegen, zeigen: BMC soll dem deutschen Konzern als Türöffner dienen.

BMC solle „endlich mal beweisen“, dass es „Einfluss auf Bedarfsentscheidungen und Beschaffungsprogramme“ in der Türkei habe, schreibt ein Rheinmetall-Mitarbeiter. Ein anderer Manager fordert: „Wir brauchen jetzt unbedingt das TOP Meeting mit Erdogan.“ Man solle ein solches Treffen „mit Nachdruck“ über BMC einfordern. Wenig später empfing der türkische Präsident tatsächlich mehrere Rheinmetall-Manager.

Keine offizielle Bestätigung

Rheinmetall und BMC ließen Anfragen von report München und „Stern“ unbeantwortet. Das Bundesaußenministerium teilte mit, zu Einzelfallanfragen bei Rüstungsexporten erteile man aus rechtlichen Gründen keine Auskunft.

ARD-aktuell / tagesschau.de




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